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清明上河园带沿途英语导游词

http://zige.eol.cn  来源:  作者:  2012-07-20    

 Situated ten kilometers south of the Huanghe River (Yellow River), the city of Kaifeng covers an area of 359 square Kilometers and has a population of 530,000. It is smooth in terrain, stretching as far as the eye can see.
  Kaifeng has a mild temperate monsoon climate. The annual mean temperature is 14.4℃ with a fairly large annual temperature difference.Kaifeng is a city under the jurisdiction of Henan Province. It was one of the 8 major ancient capitals of China (the other 7 being Xian, Luoyang, Beijing, Nanjing,Hangzhou,Anyang and Zhengzhou). The city of Kaifeng was already in existence before 700 B.C. During the period of Warring States more than 2,000 years ago, King Hui of the State of Wei moved his capital to Kaifeng, rebuilt the city and called it Daliang. Since then, Kaifeng is the capital of several dynasties.
  As an ancient capital, Kaifeng has a lot of historical relics and scenic spots. Some of them have been preserved, such as the iron Pagoda, Po Pagoda, Xiangguo Monastery, Dragon Pavilion, Terrace of King Yu and Yanqing Taoist Temple. They are precious heritages of the Chinese culture.
  There will be more suprises waiting for you in Kaifeng. When you still lost in the folk customs of the Song Dynasty, you are unexpectedly in series of carefully arranged performances. Look! Isn't that Bao Zheng coming, who is well known for his fairness in settling lawsuits? Isn't that Li Shishi who is telling her love to her loved one? Isn't that Outlaws of the Marsh who are robbing the court to rescue Song Jiang?
  You may take part in an imperial examination of the Song dynasty and become the number One Scholar; Maybe you can get the embroidered ball and become the son-in-law of Ministry Councilor Wang.You must get on board the imperial ship, singing loudly the song of the boat trackers on the Bian River; and enjoy the glamour of walks on stilts
  Today, fundamental changes have taken place and remarkable achievements have been made. The city itself has also been enlarged.
  Kaifeng
  Kaifeng was the provincial capital until superseded (1954) by Zhengzhou.
  Area 6,444 km² Population 4.8 million
  Kaifeng, formerly known as Bianliang (Chinese: 汴梁) or Bianjing (Chinese: 汴京), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. Located along the southern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, and the province of Shandong to the northeast.
  Administration
  The prefecture-level city of Kaifeng administers 5 districts and 5 counties.
  Gulou District (鼓楼区) Longting District (龙亭区) Nanguan District (南关区) Jiao District (郊区) Shunhe Hui District (顺河回族区) Weishi County (尉氏县) Qi County (杞县) Tongxu County (通许县) Lankao County (兰考县) Kaifeng County (开封县)
  History
  The famous painting Qingming Scroll is believed by some to portray daily life in Kaifeng. The painting, of which several versions are extant, is attributed to the Song Dynasty (960-1279) artist Zhang Zeduan.Kaifeng is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China.
  In 364 BC, the state of Wei during the Warring States Period founded a city called Daliang as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed; it linked a local river to the Huang He. When the State of Wei was conquered by the Qin, Kaifeng was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in its place.
  Early in the 7th century, Kaifeng was transformed into a major commercial hub when it was connected to the Grand Canal as well as a canal running to western Shandong Province.
  In 781 (Tang Dynasty), a new city was reconstructed and named Bian (汴). Bian was the capital of the Later Jin (936-946), Later Han (947-950), and Later Zhou (951-960) of the Five Dynasties Period.
  The Song Dynasty made Bian its capital when it overthrew the Later Zhou in 960, and shortly afterward, they further expanded the city.During the Song Dynasty, Kaifeng was the capital with a population of over 400,000, living both inside and outside the city wall. Typhus was an acute problem of the city.
  The Iron Pagoda, or Youguo Pagoda of Kaifeng, built in 1049 AD during the Song Dynasty. In 1049, Youguosi Pagoda (佑國寺塔), or Iron Pagoda (鐵塔) as it is called today, was constructed, which measures 54.7 m in height. It has survived the destruction of wars and floodings and become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song Dynasty pagoda, Bo Ta (繁塔), from 974, has been partially destroyed. Another well-known sight was the astronomical clock tower of the engineer, scientist, and statesman Su Song (1020-1101 AD). It was crowned with a rotating armillary sphere that was hydraulic-powered (i.e. by waterwheel and clepsydra clock), yet it incorporated an escapement mechanism two hundred years before they were found in clockworks of Europe, and featured the first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.
  Kaifeng reached its peak of importance in the 11th century, when it was a commercial and industrial center at the intersection of four major canals. During this time, the city was surrounded by three rings of city walls and probably had a population of 600,000 to 700,000.
  It is believed that Kaifeng was the largest city in the world from 1013 to 1127. This period ended in 1127, when the city fell to Jurchen invaders (see Jingkang Incident)and came subsequently under the rule of the Jin Dynasty. While it remained an important administrative center, only the city area inside the inner city wall of the early Song Dynasty remained settled and the two outer rings were abandoned.
  Kaifeng served as the Jurchen's "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time.[2][3] But they kept their main capital further north, until 1214, when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng in order to flee the Mongol onslaught. In 1234 they succumbed to combined Mongol and Song Dynasty forces. Mongols took control, and in 1279 they conquered all of China.
  At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty in 1368, Kaifeng was made the capital of Henan Province.
  In 1642, Kaifeng was flooded by the Ming army with water from Yellow River to prevent the peasant rebel Li Zicheng from taking over. After this disaster, the city was abandoned again.
  Under the celebrated Qing emperor Kangxi (1662), Kaifeng was rebuilt. However, another flooding occurred in 1841, followed by another reconstruction in 1843, which produced the contemporary Kaifeng as we know it.
  Kaifeng is also known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China, the Kaifeng Jews.
  Culture
  Kaifeng offers a wide range of food specialities such as steaming pie and Chinese dumpling. In the evening Kaifeng's streets turn into restaurants while hundreds open their stands and begin selling their food in the famous night market. Often people from the nearby Zhengzhoucome to Kaifeng to spend an evening with their family as the atmosphere is very appealing. Less adventurous western tourists may prefer to eat inside the restaurants and just have their drinks outside because they might not want to try chicken feet, pork feet or bucks.
  Particularly famous is Kaifeng's five-spice bread (wǔxiāng shāobǐng), which like pita can be opened and filled.
  Tourism
  DaXiangGuo Temple (大相国寺): Famous Buddhist temple first built in 555 A.D..
  BaoGong Ancestral Hall (包公祠) :An ancestral hall built in remembrance of a respectable
  official from the Song Dynasty.

  

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